St. Regulus or St. Rule
According to an old legend, of which there seem to be three versions, and which is therefore somewhat controversial, St. Regulus, or St. Rule, was the bishop of patras, in Greece, and the custodian of the relics of the martyred apostle St. Andrew. In A.D. 345, in obedience to a vision, he concealed some of these relics, and as directed in a second vision, took them with him when he traveled to the west to found a church to the memory of St. Andrew. After some wandering, he and those who accompanied him, reaching Scotland in A.D. 347 and landed at Muckross or Kilrimont, now St. Andrews, on the east coast of county Fife. Here he is supposed to have erected his church and founded the earliest Christian settlement in commemoration and Thanksgiving. (1) (2)
There are various variations to this legend and the truth about it is somewhat confused. One source of information says that the relics were brought to St. Andrews in A.D. 761 the year Angus I, Kind of the Picts, died. (3)
Karl Baedaker, in speaking of the ruins of St. Andrews Cathedral, states that it was the church of a priory of Austin
St. Regulus or St. Rule
Canons and probably dates from 1160-1380. The see was probably founded in 736 when the relics of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, were brought there (traditionally by St. Rule or Regulus). To the S.E. of the cathedral is St. Rule’s church, dating probably from the first half of the 12th century. (4)
1. Chambers’ encyclopedia (1895) vol. VIII p. 628.
2. Guide book of St. Andrews Cathedral (1950)
3. Wyntoun’s chronicle (1530)
4. Handbook for travelers (1927) p. 611.
Ancient Church Dedications in Scotland
James Murray Mackinlay M.A.
Vol. I Chapter XII p. 202 “The Apostles”.
According to a well known but ill-founded tradition, the relics of St. Andrew were brought from the east to the coast of Fife by St. Regulus, otherwise St. Rule, in the fourth, or according to another version, in the eighth century. St. Regulus landed at Muckross, otherwise Kilrimont, now St. Andrews where there were afterwards several dedications to the apostle, to be mentioned presently.
As indicated above, so marked was the impress made by the apostle on the on the ancient Muckorss – otherwise Kilrimont – in Fife that the place became, what it still is, St. Andrews. The Saint’s relics drew such multitude of pilgrims to his shrine that a hospital for their reception was founded, it is believed, in the twelfth century. In the foundation charter of St. Leonard’s College in 1512 we read: “in time past that holy servant of God, Regulus, brought the relics of St. Andrew the apostle by miraculous guidance from the city of patras to Scotland, and being reverently and honourably received at that time by the catholic king deposited them in seat where our metropolis now stands, and whereas thereafter princes and many others distinguished by the Christian name did in that place do service to the almighty in divers ways, to wit, by the foundations of churches, by the appointing of divine worship, by the institution of Ecclesiastical dignities and the present monastery of canons regular so that form divers lands, far and near, divers pilgrims did set forth to the church of St. Andrews because of the wonders for which the relics of the blessed apostle became famous, and in the zeal of their devotion thronged thither from day to day, and for the reception
St. Regulus or St. Rule
of these pilgrims the prior and convent of our church aforesaid did out of their piety build a hospital of St. Andrews.” The priory above mentioned came into existence towards the middle of the twelfth century, and was under the invocation of St. Andrew.
The ancient church of Tyrie parish, dedicated to St. Andrew, was known as the white church of Buchan. Tradition says that it was built about the year 1000, by a mormaer of Buchan after he had routed the Danes on the neighboring hills. The apostle was patron of the church of Rayne in the same shire, where he is remembered in the name of St. Andrew’s hill, and where a fair, known as Andersmas, used to be held. Other Aberdeenshire churches in the same name were those of Gailhy, Alford, Strathdon, and Kindrochet, now Braemar.
The last mentioned place appears in the story of St. Regulus, together whith forteviot in Perthshire, and Monikie in Forfarshire, whose churches were likewise named after St. Andrew. Dr. Joseph Anderson remarks: “Forteviot was from an early period a residence of the pictish kings. The legend of St. Andrew represents St. Regulus and his followers as proceeding to Forteviot with the relics of the holy apostle immediately after their landing at Kilrimont (St. Andrews) in 761. King Hungus had gone on an expedition into Argyle, but they found his three sons residing at Forteviot. These princes are said to have given the tenth part of ‘town’ to God and St. Andrew, and the holy men erected a cross in commemoration of the gift. Then they went to Kindrochet in Braemer to meet the king on his return, and he and all his nobles prostrated themselves before the relics of St. Andrew, which were there known to them, and he gave that place to God and St. Andrew, and built a church there. Then he came over the mount to Monicler, and there, in honour of god and the blessed apostle, he built a church, and so the king came with the holy men to Forteviot and built there a church (Basilica) to God and St. Andrew.”
Vol. 2, p. 473
There is a group of saints whose legends connect them with the east, and also with Scotland, but regarding whose biographies there is much uncertainty. One of the best known, by name at least, was St. Regulus, otherwise St. Rule, the mystery of whose personality even the scholarship of Dr. W.F. Skene and Bishop Dowden has failed to unravel. St. Regulus was represented as a Greek monk, and the custodian of the relics of St. Andrew the apostle at patras in Achais. When the Emperor Constantius desired to remove the relics to Constantinople. St. Regulus was
St. Regulus or St. Rule
warned by an angel to conceal portions of them, and afterwards convey them to the western regions of the world, where he should found a church in honour of the apostle. At length he reached the shores of Fife, and landed with his precious burden at Muckros, otherwise, Kilrymont, better known as St. Andrew.
The current tradition is expressed by Bishop Leslie of Ross when he says: “St. Rule maid Scotland of nobilitie and renowne, quhen W T the reliques of S. Andro he decoret it, quhilkes out of Greece he brocht.” (Historie of Scotland S.T.S. Vol. I p. 110). According to one version of his legend, St. Regulus and his companions reached our shores in the fourth century, according to another version, in the eighth century. His name is associated with the building known as St. Rule’s chapel at St. Andrews, situated fully a 100 feet southeast of the cathedral ruins. It’s tower, 110 feet high, was at one time commonly known as the “four-hooked”, i.e. four-cornered, steeple.
When describing the structural appearance of the building Mr. P. MacGregor Chalmers remarks: “The parts of the original fabric which remain are the western porch, designed as a great tower, and the nave. The church as completed consisted of original nave, transformed into a chancel, with an eastern aspe for the high altar, a new nave, and a central tower.” There has been much speculation as to the date of the structure. George Martine in the seventeenth century gave expression to the opinion then prevailing that it belongs to the lifetime of St. Regulus. (History & Antiques of St. Rule’s Chapel, p. 193). Mr. MacGregor Chalmers thinks that the tower and original have date from the time of Cellach, who was bishop of St. Andrew, from 970 till 995, and that the new nave belongs to the time of bishop maeldrum, who occupied the see from 1028 till 1055. Messrs. MacGibbon and Ross incline to a later date and believe that the surviving structure is in all probability that work of Bishop Robert who was appointed to the see about 1144. Mr. T.S. Muir suggests that in view of its disproportionate size in relation to the rest of the building, the tower must have been designed for defensive purposes.
One of the companions of St. Regulus was St. Damianus, to whom an oratory at St. Andrews is said to have been dedicated at an early date. (Chronicles of the Picts and Scots. p. 187).
St. Rule’s tower at St. Andrews is visible from the parish of Monofieth in Angus, on the other side of the Firth of Tay. The pre-reformation church of the parish, which was removed in 1812 to give place to new structure, also owned allegiance to St. Regulus. In the Edinburgh prognostication for 1706 the Monofieth fair was described as “an ancient fair called Trewell fair on the
St. Regulus or St. Rule
second Tuesday in October.” Mr. Andrew Jervise thinks that the Church of Stracathro in the same shire, which was the prebend of the chanter of Brechin Catherdral, was under the invocation of St. Regulus. He bases his opinion on the fact that near the church was Braul’s or Sbrule’s well, in whose name hei s disposed to find that of St. Rule in a distorted form.
On the lands of Morphie in the parish of St. Cyrus in Kincardineshire once stood a chapel to St. Regulus. In a charter of date 1471 allusion is made to the church of Eglisgreg (St. Cyrus), with its chapel of St. Regulus and the church lands of Eglisreul.
There was a chapel to St. Rule in Fyvie Parish, Aberdeenshire at Meikle-Folla, called from it Folla-Rule. It was founded in 1376 by Adam Pyngil, Burgess of Aberdeen, with consent of his wife Marjorie Blackvatyr. When erected, the chapel was connected with the cathedral of Aberdeen, but it passed at a later date into the possession of King’s College. The pre-reformation church of Kirnethmont in the same shire also owed allegiance to St. Regulus, and near it a fair known as Trewel Fair was held annually on the second Tuesday of October.
A chapel to St. Regulus once stood on the east of Cromarty, near the castle of the Urqunarts, where its grass-grown foundations are still seen. The building was in the process of disappearing in Hugh Miller’s time. Its remains are thus described by him, “The ruins of the old chapel of St. Regulus occupy the edge of a projecting angel, in which the burying ground terminates towards the east – the greater part of the front wall has been swallowed up piecemeal by the ravine, which, from the continual action of the stream, and the rains and snows of so many winters, has been gradually widening and deepening until it was at length reached the site of the building, and is now scooping out what was once the floor.” Hugh Miller adds, “what is now, however, only a broken-edged ruin, and a few shapeless mounds, was three hundred years ago, a picturesque-looking high-gabled house of one story perforated by a range of narrow, slitlike windows, and roofed with ponderous grey slate. A rude stone cross surmounted the eastern gable.” (scenes and legends of the north of Scotland pp. 205-209).
While the ruin was still standing, probably about the middle of the 18th century a tattered old book with red letters in it was discovered in a square recess in one of the walls, but was carried off by a boy and lost. In an undated heritable bond entered into by Sir John Urquhart of Cromarty, allusion is made to “sanct Rules hill” and the “lands of sanct Rulles E. and W.” (W. MacGill’s old Ross-shire in Scotland, p. 303).
St. Regulus or St. Rule
Among those who accompanied St. Rule to Scotland were several consecrated virgins. One of these was St. Triduana of Colosse, whose name appears under a variety of forms. She settled for a time at Rescobie in Angus, where the church was at a later date dedicated to her. Rescobie had anciently St. Trodlin’s Fair in memory of her. It was held at the old Kirk style, but long ago was removed to forfar. On a triangular space near the church is still to be seen the stone where the market dues used to be collected.
Legend says that, to avoid the attentions of Nectaneus the Ruler of the district, who greatly admired the beauty of her eyes, the saint plucked them out and sent them to him. She was allowed to thereafter to remain unmolested, and spent the rest o her life as restalrig in Midlothian, where she died and was buried.
There was a St. Regulus or Rieul, Bishop of Senlis in France
in the end of the third century and there was a St. Riaghail of
Mulcinis in Ireland in the sixth century. “For myself”, remarks
Bishop Dowden, “after a careful examination of the evidence, I
am inclined to think it is a fruitless inquiry to ask ‘who was the
historic Regulus of St. Andrew?’” P.S.A. Scot. Vol. XXVII p. 253.
We find the feminine form in the name of St. Regula, who along
with her brother, St. Felix, was beheaded in the latter half of the 3rd
century at or near Zurich, of which town she is the patron saint.
In the library at Aaran in the Canton Aargan she is represented in
stained glass by Carl von Egeri. The martyr is shown under an arched
canopy holding her head in her hand, while behind is a view of Zurich.
Another collection of information regard St. Rule is as follows:
Regulus or Rule, Saint (Fl. 8th cent.), was the legendry founder of the see of St Andrew. He is the leading character in the story of the journeyings of the relics of St. Andrew, a story which has three principal versions - that of a a colbertine manuscript (the oldest and simplest of the three), that of St. Andrew’s priory, and that of the Aberdeen breviary. These versions vary considerably in detail, but the main outline of the story is that when is 345 Constantius invaded Patras, where St. Andrew was
St. Regulus or St. Rule
martyred, Bishop Regulus, custodian of the relics, concealed a part of them in obedience to a vision, he was directed in a second vision to found a church in the west. After some wandering Regulus reached Scotland, and on a hill called Rigmond (Kil-Rymont, or St. Andrews) met the king of the Picts at the head of an army. The king was Ungus, son of Urguist, who had already seen warned in a vision to offer the tenth part of his inheritance to St. Andrew in order that he might be victorious in the war he was waging against the Britannic Nations in the plain of merse, or according to the St. Andrews version, against Aethelstan, king of the Saxons. The relics of St. Andrew were landed at a harbour called Matha that is, Mordurus or Muckross. The king then dedicated that place to St. Andrew , to behead Pictish churches, and made a grant of Kilrymont and a large territory to God and St Andrew, together with the sites of many other churches which the legend specifies.
Skene identifies Ungus or Hungus, son of Urguist, the benefactor of Regulus, with Angus McFergus, who reigned 731-761, and led in 740 an expedition against Eadbert, King of Northumbria. The ‘register of St. Andrews’, however, attributed the foundation of St. Andrews to a later Angus McFergus, who reigned 822-834. It is impossible to reconcile the dates of either Angus with those assigned in legend to Regulus, who is said to have left Patras for Scotland in the fourth century. But no reliance can be placed on that part of the story, there is doubtless some confusion between the founder of the Scottish see of St. Andrews and another St. Regulus or Rieul, a Greek of the fourth century, who was first bishop of Senlis.
The cult of St. Andrew in the eighth century in Scotland was perhaps due to the wanderings of Acca (Q.V.), the latter had ruled over Hexham, which was dedicated to St. Andrew, and the church there claimed to possess his relics.
St. Regulus is commemorated in the Aberdeen Breviary on 30 March. When 30 March fell in lent, St. Regulus’s feast was commemorated on 17 October. On the preceding day the feast of an Irish saint, Riaghail, is celebrated, and I has been suggested that this name is the Celtic form of the Latin Regulus. In Scotland St. Regulus is patron of churches at Monifeth, Kenwethmont, Meikle Folla and Ecclesgreg.
· Forbes’s Cal of Scottish Saints, p. 436.
· Brev. Aberd. Prop. SS Pars, Hyem. F. LXXXII, edited for the Bannatyne club.
St. Regulus or St. Rule
· Skene’s Celtic Scotland, and paper in the proceedings of the society of antiquaries of Scotland, IV 300 21.
· Reeves’s Culdees, PT. 112, 2
· Acta SS Bolland Oct. VIII, 163
· Dict. Of Christian Biogr.
· O’Hanlon’s Irish Saints, 111, 1021.
The calendar of Scottish saints provides the following:
Regulus or Rule. March 30 and October 17. The commemoration of the Scotch S. Regulus occurs in the breviary of Aberdeen on March 30, the same day as that of “S. Regulus or Rieul, who, having converted the country of Senlis to the faith, about the same time that S. Dionysius preached in France, was made first bishop of Senlis, and died in peace in the midst of his flock.” (Alban Sutler ad diem, on the authority of th ebollandists and Tillemont). So Usuarous, “Apud Castrum Silvanectensium, depositio sancti Reguli Episcopi et Confessoris.” (Ed. Soller, P. 180). Another day, the 17th of October, is also kept in his honour Quonian in Quadragesima de eo non fuerit servitium, omnia sicut in alio festo, sed differtur in crastinum (Brev. Aberd. Pars. Estiv. Fol. CXXVIII), and it is remarkable that the 16th of October is the day of S. Riaghail, Abbot of Muicinis, in Lough derg on the Shannon (Mart. Donegal). He is commemorated in the Felire of Aengus at October 16th as:
Riaguil Raith Arremsin (Riagail gifted was his career). Which is glossed by:
I Riagail Muicindsi fa Loch Derg (i.e. Riaghail of Muicinis in Loch Derg).
The Breviary of Aberdeen says that he is specially honoured in S. Andrews and its diocese. The Martyrology of Aberdeen associated him with the church of Kylrewni.
The early history of S. Andrews is involved in the greatest obscurity. So early as 598, S. Cainneach died, and he was connected with an abbey church in Cillrighmonaigh. Tighernach records the death of Tuathalan, its abbot, as occurring one hundred and fifty one years after this. These are evidently Scoto-Irish, and probably Regulus may have been the same as the Riaghail of Muic-Inis, just mentioned, but the difficulty is that he is recognized as an accredited saint in the martyrology of Tallaght
St. Regulus or St. Rule
about 788, where as criticism makes the advent of S. Regulus from the east to occur in the eighth century, thus giving a very short time for public acknowledgement, if not for formal cannonisation.
The Regulus legend, as believed in Scotland, first occurs in the Colbertine ms in the bibliotheque imperiale. There is also a legend, apparently of the early part of the fourteenth century, in the Harleian collection in the British Museum, and the last form is that given in the Breviary of Aberdeen. With reference to these various forms of the legend, Mr. W. F. Skene has the following remarks:
“In comparing these three editions, it will be convenient to divide the narrative into three distinct statements.
“The first is the removal of the relics of S. Andrew from Patras to Constantinople. The Colbertine account states that S. Andrew, after preaching to the northern nations, the Scytians and Pictones, received in charge of the District of Achaia, with the city of Patras, and was there crucified, that his bones remained there till the time of Constantine the Great, and his sons Constantius and Constans, for 270 years, when they were removed to Constantinople where they remained till the reign of Emperor Theodosius.
“The account in the Ms. of the priory of S.Andrew states, that in the year 345, Constantius collected a great army to invade Patras, in order to avenge the martyrdom of S. Andrew, and remove his relics, that an angel appeared to the custodiers of the relics, and ordered Regulus, the bishop, with his clergy, to proceed to the sarcophagus which contained his bones, and to take a part of them, consisting of three fingers of the right hand, a part of one of the arms, the pan of one of the knees, and one of his teeth, and conceal them, and that the following day Constantius entered the city, and carried off to Rome the shrine containing the rest of his bones, that he then laid waste the Insula Tyberis and Colossia, and took thence the bones of S. Luke and S. Timothy, and carried them along with the relics of S. Andrew to Constantinople.
The Aberdeen Breviary says that, in the year 360, Regulus flourished at Patras in Achaia, and was custodier of the bones and the relics of S. Andrew, that Constantius invaded Patrus in order to avenge the maryrdom of S. Andrew, that an angel appeared to him, and desired him to conceal a part of the relics, and that after Constantius had removed the rest of the relics to Constantinople, this angel again appeared to him, and desired him to take the part of the relics he had concealed, and to transport them to the western region of the world, where he should lay the foundation of a
St. Regulus or St. Rule
church in honour of the apostle. Here the growth of the legend is very apparent. In the oldest edition, we are told of the removal of the relics to Constantinople, without at word of Regulus. In the second, we have the addition of Regulus concealing a party of the relics in obedience to a vision, and in the third, we have a second vision directed him to found a church in the west. This part of the legend, as we find it in the oldest edition, belongs in fact, to the legend of S. Andrew, where it is stated that, after preaching to the Scythians, he went to Argos, where he also preached, and finally suffered martyrdom at Patras, and that, in the year 337, his body was transferred from Patras to Constantinople with those of S.Luke and S. Timothy, and deposited in the church of the apostles, which had been built some time before Constantine the Great.
“When I visited Greece in the year 1844, I was desirous of ascertaining whether any traces of this legend remained at Patras. In the town of Patras I could find no church dedicated to a S. Andrew, but I observed a small and very old looking Greek monastery, about a mile to the west of it, on the shore of the Gulf of Patras, and proceeding there, I found one of the caloyeres or Greek monks, who spoke Italian, and who informed me that the monastery was attacked to the adjacent church of S. Andrew built over the place where he had suffered martyrdom. He took me into the church, which was one of the small Bylantine buildings so common in Greece, and showed me the sarcophagus from which, he said, the relics had been removed, and also, at the door of the church, the spot where his cross had been raised, and a well called S. Andrews well. I could find, however, no trace of St. Regulus.
“The second part of the legend in the oldest edition represents a Pictish king termed Ungus, son of Urguist, waging war in the merse, and being surrounded by his enemies. As the king was walking with his seven conites, a bright light shines upon them, they fall to the earth, and a voice from heaven says, ‘Ungus, Ungus, hear me, an apostle of Christ called Andrew, who am sent to defend and guard thee.’ He directs him to attack his enemies, and desires him to offer the tenth part of his inheritance in honour of S. Andrew. Ungus obeys and is victorious.
“In the S. Andrews edition, Ungus’s enemy is said to have seen Athelstane, king of the Saxons, and his camp at the mouth of the river Tyne. S. Andrew appears to Ungus in a dream, and promises him victory, and tells him that the relics will be brought to his kingdom, and the place to which they are brought is to become honoured and celebrated. The people of the Picts swear to
St. Regulus or St. Rule
venerate S. Andrew ever after, if they prove
victorious. Athelstane is defeated, his
head taken off, and carried to a place called
Arochinnichan, or Portus Reginae.
“The Breviary of Aberdeen does not contain this part of the legend.
“The third part of the legend in the oldest narrative represents one of the custodiers of the body of S. Andrew at Constantinople, directed by an angel in a vision to leave his house, and go to a place whither the angel will direct him. He proceeds prosperously to ‘Verticem Montis Regis id est Rigmond.’ Then the king of the Picts comes with his army, and Regulus, a monk, a stranger form the city of Constantinople, meets him with the relics of S. Andrew at a harbour which is called, ‘Matha, id est Mordurus,’ and King Ungus dedicates that place and city to God and s. Andrew, ‘ut sit caput et mater omnium ecclesiarum quae sunt in regno pictorum.’ It must be remembered where that this is the first appearance of the name of Regulus in the old legend, and that it is evidently the same King Ungus who is referred to in both parts of the story. The S. Andrews edition of the legend relates this part of the story much more circumstantially. According to it, Regulus was warned by the angel to sail with the relics towards the north, and wherever his vessel was wrecked, there to erect a church in honour of S. Andrew. He voyages among the islands of the Greek sea for a year and a half, and wherever he lands he erects an oratory in honour of S. Andrew. At length he lands in, ‘Terra Pictorum ad locum qui muckros fuerat muncupatus, nunc autem Kilryont dictus,’ and his vessel having been wrecked he erects a cross he had brought from Patras. After remaining there seventeen days or nights, Regulus goes with the relics to Forteviot, and finds there the three sons of King Hungus, Viz Owen, Hectan, and Finguine, who, being anxious as to the life of their father, then on an expedition, ‘in partibus Argathaliae’, give the tenth part of Forteviot to God and S. Andrew. They then go to a place called, ‘Moneclatus qui nunc dicitur monichi’, and there Finchem, the queen of King Hungus is delivered of a daughter called Mowren, who was afterwards buried at Kilrymont, and the queen gives the place to God and S. Andrew. They then cross the mountain called Moneth, and reach a plaace called, ‘Doldancha, nunc autem dictus chonorochedalvan’, where they meet King Hungus returning from his expedition, who prostrates himself before the relics and this place is also given to God and S. Andrew. The return across the Moneth to Monichi, where a church was built in honour of God and the apostle, and thence to Forteviot, where a church is also built. King Hungus then goes with the clergy to Kilrymonth, when a great
St. Regulus or St. Rule
part of that place is given to build churches and oratories, and a large territory is given as Parochia. The boundaries of this Parochia can still be traced, and consisted of that part of Fife lying to the east of a line drawn from Largs to Hauchton. Within his line was the district called Boar’s Chase, containing the modern parishes of S. Andrews, Cameron, Dairsie, Kemback, Ceres, Denino, and Kingsmuir, and besides this district, the following parishes were included in the Parochia. Viz Craiz, Kingsbarns, Anstruther, Abercromby, S. Monance, Kelly, Elie, Newsburgh, Largo, Leuchars, Forgan, and Logie-Murdoch.
“It is impossible to doubt that there is a historic basis of some kind for this part of the legend. The circumstantial character of the narrative is of a kind not likely to be invented. The place beyond the moneth or Grampians, called Chonorochedalvan, is plainly the church of Kindrochet in Braemer, which was dedicated to S. Andrew. Monichi is probably not Moniki in Forfarshire, as that church was in the diocese of Brechin, but a church called Eglis Monichti, now in the parish of Monifieth which was in the diocese of S. Andrews, and Forteviot was also in the diocese of S. Andrews.
“According to the account in the Breviary, Regulus, after the relics had been removed to Constantinople, takes the portion he had concealed, and sails with them for two years till he arrives, ‘as terram scottorum,’ where he lands and enters the, ‘nemus porcorum,’ and there builds a church, and preaches to the neighboring people far and wide. Hungus, King of the Picts, sees a compant of angels hover over the relics of the apostle, and comes with his army to Regulus, who baptizes him with all his servants, and receives a grant of the land, which is set apart to be the chief seat and mother ‘church of Scotland”
· Skene’s notice of the early ecclesiastical settlements at S. Andrews, in proceedings soc. Antiq Scot. Vol. IV. Pp. 301-307).
· S. Regulus is patron of Monifieth (Edin.prognostication for 1705),of Kennethmonth, where there is an ancient fair, called Trewell Fair, on the second Tuesday in October (V.D.A. 623) and of Meikle Folla (V.D.A. 493), also a chapel at S. Cyrus or Ecclesgreg.
St. Regulus or St. Rule
Publicity was given, this month, to the action of the Roman Catholic Church in Rome in returning to the Orthodox church of Greece certain relics of St. Andrew the apostle, that have apparently been in the possession of the Roman church for some 500 years. This, according to the article, is a good will gesture toward the Greek Church. Based on the information contained in the preceding pages, it would appear that these relics have been away from Greece for considerably more then 500 years, having been removed from Patras in either the fourth or eighth century. As this would be either 1600 or 1200 years ago, these relics must have been somewhere else for many years before reaching Rome.